Department of Aquatic Animal Health Management



International Journals


Dubey S., Maiti B., Kim, S.H., Sivadasan, S.M.,D., Pandey P.K., Girisha S.K., Mutoloki S., Chen S.H.,Evensen O., Karunasagar I., Mweemba Munang´andu H.M. 2019. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of  Edwardsiella isolates from different fish species and geographical areas in Asia: Implications for vaccine development J. Fish Dis., 1–16. DOI: 10.1111/jfd.12984 Impact factor: 2.004 NAAS:8.14

Shekar M, Venugopal M.N. 2019. Identification and characterization of novel double zinc finger encoded by putative proteins in genome of white spot syndrome virus. Archives of virology 164:961–969. Impact factor: 2.160 NAAS:8.06

Turner L.M.,  Havenhand J.N.,  Alsterberg, C., Turner A.D., Girisha S. K., Rai, A., Venugopal M. N.,Karunasagar I. Godhe A. 2019. Toxic algae silence physiological responses to multiple climate drivers in a tropical marine food chain. Frontiers in Physiology (accepted) Impact factor: 3.394 NAAS: 9.39


National Journals


Choudhury, T.G., Maiti, B., Venugopal, M.N., Karunasagar I. 2019. Influence of some environmental variables and addition of r-lysozyme on efficacy of Vibrio harveyi phage for therapy. J. Biosci. 44:8-17 Impact factor: 1.528; NAAS: 7.42

Vinay T. N., Naveen Kumar B. T., Choudhury T.G., Girisha S. K., Avunje S.. Patil P. K. 2019. The potential of plant genetic engineering to develop oral vaccines for fish: the concept. J. Exp. Zool. India, 22 (1); pp. 000-000. NAAS Rating: 5.51


International Journals


Gambi, C. D, Shankar, K. M., Prakash Patil, Satish R. P., Abhiman, B., Naveen Kumar B. T., and Ramesh, K. S., 2018. Skim milk flocculation concentrates WSSV in sea water for detection using a monoclonal antibody based flow through assay. International journal of poultry and fisheries sciences, 5: 1

Dharmakar Padala, Ganapathi Naik M., Anjusha K.V., Ramesh K. S., Abhiman P. B. and Rakesh K., 2018. Growth promoter effect of peppermint (Mentha piperita) on rohu (Labeo rohita). Intenational journal of fisheries and aquatic studies, 6(4): 537

Baliga, P., Shekar M. and Venugopal M.N. 2018. Investigation of direct repeats, spacers and proteins associated with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) system of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Mol. Genet. Genomics. 294: 253-262. Impact factor: 2.734 NAAS:8.98

Shekar, M., and Venugopal M.N. 2018. Insight into a transcriptional adaptor zinc finger encoded by a putative protein in the white spot syndrome virus genome. Interdiscip. Sci: Comput Life Sci. 11: 145-151.  Impact factor:0.796 NAAS:6.75


National Journals


Baliga P, Shekar M, Venugopal MN. 2018. A correlational study between antibiotic resistance, presence of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat loci and thermostable direct hemolysin gene in environmental isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Indian Journal of Fisheries (accepted) Impact factor: 0.275 NAAS:6.24

Baliga P, Shekar M, Venugopal MN. 2018. Elucidating the CRISPR associated endoribonuclease (Cas6) gene diversity in Vibrio parahaemolyticus and validation of novel primers designed for their detection. Veterinary World (accepted) NAAS: 5.71


International Journals


Adesiji, Y.O., Shivakumaraswamy, S.K., Deekshit, V.K., Girisha, S.K. and Karunasagar,
I. 2017. Molecular characterization of antimicrobial multi-drug resistance in non-typhoidal
Salmonellae from chicken and clam in Mangalore, India. The J. Biomedical Res., doi:
10.7555/JBR.31.20160094. Impact factor: 0.219

Baliga, P., Shekar, M. and Venugopal, M. N. 2017. Potential outer membrane protein
candidates for vaccine development against the pathogen Vibrioanguillarum: A reverse
vaccinology based identification. Curr Microbiol. Doi 10.1007/s00284-017-1390-z Impact
factor: 1.322

Nagaraj, S.B., Roy, N., Gouda, M.M., Moger, R., and Abraham, A. 2017. High fat simple
carbohydrate diet intake induces hypothalamic – pituitary-thyroid axis dysregulation in
C57BL/6J male mice. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, / 10.1139 /
apnm-2017-0410 Impact factor: 2.009

Santhosh, K.S., Deekshit, V.K., Venugopal, M.N., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I.
2017. Multiple Antimicrobial resistance and novel point mutation influoroquinolone-
resistant Escherichia coli isolates from Mangalore, India. Microbial Drug Resist., 23:994-
1001. Impact factor: 2.529

Shekar, M., and Venugopal M.N. 2017. Insight into a transcriptional adaptor zinc finger
encoded by a putative protein in the white spot syndrome virus genome. Interdiscip. Sci:
Comput Life Sci. doi: 10.1007/s12539-017-0268-x Impact factor: 0.753

Sivadasan, S.M., Shekar, M., and Venugopal, M.N. 2017. Occurrence of clinical genotype
Vibrio vulnificus in clam samples in Mangalore, Southwest coast of India. J. Food. Sci and
Technol. 54 (3): 786-791. Doi: 10.1007/s13197-017-2522-y. Impact factor: 1.262

Turner, A.D., Dhanji-Rapkova, M., Rowland-Pilgrim, S., Turner, L.M., Rai, A., Venugopal,
M.N., Karunasagar, I. and Godhe, A. 2017. Assessing the presence of marine toxins in
bivalve mollusks from southwest India, Toxicon, 140:147-156. Doi: 10.1016 / j.toxicon
.2017.11.001 Impact factor: 2.492

Tharabenahalli Nagaraju Vinay, Shreelatha Bhat, Tanmoy Gon Choudhury, Anutosh Paria,
Myung Hwa Jung,GirishaShivaniKallappaSung-Ju Jung, 2017. Recent Advances in
Application of Nanoparticles in Fish Vaccine Delivery. Reviews in Fisheries Science &

Aquaculture. https:// / 10.1080 / 23308249. 2017. 1334625 Impact factor: 2.545

GenBank submissions by the Centre:
The Centre has published the following nucleotide sequences to GenBank: Vibrio
(15); Baralius spp (4); Opsarius spp (2); WSSV (1)


National Journals


Puneeth, T.G., Akhila, D.S., Dechamma, M.M., Shreeharsha, J.M., Shivakumar, S.K. and
Venugopal, M.N. 2017. Comparative efficacy of dsRNA VP24, VP26, RR1 and WSV477 gene
against WSSV infection in Penaeus monodon. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. and Appl. Sci. 6 (2):

Rajeish, Y.M., Murthy, G.N., Madhushree H.N., Pujar, B.R., Girisha, S.K., Suresh, T. and
Venugopal, M.N. 2017. Detection of viruses in the exotic shrimp Penaeus vannamei
Boone, 1931 cultured in India. Indian J. Fish., 64(2): 63-68. Impact factor: 0.24

Vilasini U., Suresh T. and Venugopal M.N., 2017. Occurrence and distribution of pollution
indicator bacteria in shellfish harvesting waters off Karnataka. IJMS/MS 35-63


International Journals


1. Saurabh Dubey, Kiran Avadhani, Srinivas Mutalik, Sangeetha Madambithara Sivadasan,
Biswajit Maiti, Joydeb Paul, Shivani Kallappa Girisha, Moleyur Nagarajappa Venugopal,
Stephen Mutoloki, Øystein Evensen, Indrani Karunasagar and Hetron Mweemba
Munang’andu, 2016. Aeromonas hydrophila OmpW PLGA Nanoparticle Oral Vaccine Shows
a Dose-Dependent Protective Immunity in Rohu (Labeo rohita). Vaccines, 4 (21): 1-11.
DOI: 10.3390/vaccines4020021

2. Lucy M. Turner, Christian Alsterberg, Andrew D. Turner, S. K. Girisha,
Jonathan N. Havenhand, M. N. Venugopal, Indrani Karunasagar, Ashwin Rai &
Anna Godhe, 2016. Pathogenic marine microbes influence the effects of climate change on
a commercially important tropical bivalve. Scientific Reports, 6: 32413 | DOI:

3.Saurabh Dubey, Kiran Avadhani, Srinivas Mutalik, Sangeetha Madambithara Sivadasan,
Biswajit Maiti, Shivani Kallappa Girisha, Moleyur Nagarajappa Venugopal, Stephen
Mutoloki, Øystein Evensen, Indrani Karunasagar and Hetron Mweemba Munang’andu,
2016. Edwardsiella tarda OmpA Encapsulated in Chitosan Nanoparticles Shows Superior
Protection over Inactivated Whole Cell Vaccine in Orally Vaccinated Fringed-Lipped
Peninsula Carp (Labeo fimbriatus). Vaccines, 4, 40; doi:10.3390/vaccines4040040


National Journals


Vilasini Udyavara, Sangeetha Madambithara Sivadasan, Dechamma Mundanda Muthappa,
Santhosh Kogaluru Shivakumaraswamy and Moleyur Nagarajappa 2016. Prevalence and
Genomic Characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from Molluscan Shellfish and
their Inhabiting Water of Coastal Karnataka, India Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci 5(11): 173-

Moger Rajeish, Malathi Shekar, Hoovinahalli Nataraju Madhushree, Moleyur
NagarajappaVenugopal. A presumptive case of ciguatera fish poisoning in Mangalore,
India. In press


National Journals


Akhila, D.S., Mani, M.K., Rai, P., Kelly Condon, K., Owens, L and Karunasagar, I. 2015.
Antisense RNA mediated potection from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in
Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture, 435:306-309.

Banerjee, D., Maiti, B., Girisha, S.K., Venugopal, M.N. and Karunasagar, I. 2015. A crustin
isoform from black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon exhibits broad spectrum anti-bacterial
activity. Aquaculture Rep., 2:106-111.

Dechamma, M.M., Rajeish, M., Maiti, B., Mani, M.K. and Karunasagar. I. 2015. Expression
of Toll-& like receptors (TLR), in lymphoid organ of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)
in response to Vibrio harveyi infection. Aquaculture Rep., 1:1-4.

Divyashree, M., Shekar, M., Prakash, S.K., Venugopal, M.N., Karunasagar, I. and Shetty, V.
2015. Characterization of extended spectrum-lactamase producing and non-producing
Escherichia coli isolated from hospital and fish processing plant untreated wastewaters.
Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci.4:179-189.

Norouzitallab, P., Baruah, K., Dechamma, M.M., and Bossier, P. 2015. Non-lethal heat
shock induces HSP70 and HMGB1 protein production sequentially to protect Artemia
against Vibrio campbellii. Fish. Shellfish. Immunol., 42: 395-399.

Prakash, B., Shekar M., Maiti, B, Karunasagar, I, Padiyath, S. 2015. Prevalence of Candida
. among healthy denture and nondenture wearers with respect to hygiene and age. J.
Ind. Prosthodontic Soc. 15:29-32.

Santhosh K.S., Deekshit V.K., Raj, J.R.M., Karunasagar I and Venugopal M.N. 2015.
Characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of food borne pathogens isolated from
livestock wastes from Mangalore, India. Frontier J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 3: 207-209


Adesiji, Y.O., Deekshit, V. K. and Karunasagar, I. 2014. Antimicrobial-resistant genes associated with Salmonella spp. isolated from human, poultry, and seafood sources. Food. Sci. Nutr.  doi: 10.1002/fsn3.119.

Kumar, B.K., Deekshit, V. K., Rai, P., Shekar, M., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2014.  Presence of T3SS2β genes in trh+ Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from seafood harvested along Mangalore coast, India.  Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 58: 440-4

Shetty, M., Maiti, B., Venugopal,M.N., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2014. First isolation and characterization of Edwardsiella tarda from diseased striped catfish, Pangasianodon hypothalamus (Sauvage). J. Fish. Dis. 37:265-271.

Shetty, A.V., Kumar, S.H., Shekar, M., Shetty, A.K. and Karunasagar, I. 2014. Prevalence of adhesive genes among uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from patients with urinary tract infection in Mangalore. I. J. Med. Micro. 32:175-78.


Deekshit, V.K., Kumar, B.K., Rai, P., Rohit, A. and Karunasagar, I. 2013. Simultaneous detection of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 and its antibiotic resistance genes from seafood. J. Microbiol. Methods,93:233-238.

NaveenKumar S., Karunasagar,I. and Karunasagar, I. 2013. Protection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii against white tail disease by oral administration of bacterial expressed and encapsulated double-stranded RNA. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 35:833-839.

NaveenKumar S., Shekar, M., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2013.  Genetic analysis of RNA1 and RNA2 of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) isolated from India. Virus Res. 173: 377-385.

Purushottam, G. B., Shekar, M., Suresh, T., Venugopal M. N., Karunasagar, I., Karunasagar, I. 2013. Analysis of bacterial communities associated with the marine sponge Halichondira nigrocutis (Carter, 1886). Frontier J. Vet. Ani. Sci.2:60-68.

Shekar, M. and Karunasagar, I. 2013. Structural analysis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus thermostable direct hemolysin and insights into its carbohydrate recognition. Int. J. Comput. Bioinfo. In Silico Model. 2:269-274.


Bhowmick P.P., Shabarinath, S., Devegowda, D., Shekar, M., Ruwandeepika, H.A.D., Karunasagar, I., Karunasagar, I. 2012. Serotyping and molecular characterization for study of genetic diversity among seafood associated nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars. Ind. J. Med Res. 135: 371-81.

Choudhury, T.G., Maiti, B., Venugopal, M.N. and Karunasagar, I. 2012. Effect of total dissolved solids (TDS) and temperature on bacteriophage therapy against luminous vibriosis in shrimp. The Israeli J. Aquaculture - Bamidgeh IJA, 64.2012.761.

Deekshith, V.K., Kumar, B.K., Rai, P., Shabarinath, S., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2012. Detection of class I integron in Salmonella Weltrvreden and silent antibiotic resistance genes in same seafood associated non-typhyodal isolates of Salmonella in south West coast of India. J. Appl. Microbiol. 112:1113-22.

Hamod, M.A., Nithin, M.S., Yassamin, N.S., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2012. Outer membrane protein K as a subunit vaccine against  V. anguillarum. Aquaculture, 354-355:107-110.

Khushiramani, R., Maiti, B., Shekar, M., Grisha, S.K., Akash, N., Deepanjali, A., Karunasagar I. and Karunasagar I. 2012. Recombinant Aeromonas hydrophila outer membrane protein 48 (omp48) induces protective immune response against Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda. Res. Microbiol. 163: 286-91.

Maiti, B., Shetty, M., Shekar, M., Karunasagar, I., Karunasagar, I. 2012.  Evaluation of two outer membrane proteins, Aha1 and OmpW of Aeromonas hydrophila as vaccine candidate for common carp. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 149: 298-301.

Rai, P., Safeena, M.P., Krabsetsve, K., La Fauce K., Owens, L. and Karunasagar, I. 2012. Genomics, molecular epidemiology and diagnostics of infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). Ind. J. Virol. 23:203-214.

Rajendran K.V., Makesh, M. and Karunasagar, I. 2012. Monodon Baculovirus of shrimps. Ind. J. Virol. 23:149-160

Safeena, M.P., Rai, P., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2012. Molecular biology and epidemiology of hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) of penaeid shrimp. Ind. J. Virol. 23: 191-202.

Shekar, M., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2012. In silico identification and comparison of surface binding pockets of Vibrio parahaemolyticus thermostable direct hemolysin proteins. Int. J. Pharma. Biosci. 3:280-288.

Shekar, M., Pradeep, B., Karunasagar, I. 2012. White spot syndrome virus: genotypes, epidemiology and evolutionary studies. Ind. J. Virol.23: 203-214.

Shetty, M., Maiti, B., Santhosh, K.S., Venugopal, M.N. and Karunasagar, I. 2012. Betanodavirus of marine and freshwater fish. Distribution, genome organisation, diagnosis and control measures. Ind. J. Virol. 23:114-123.

Shetty, V.A., Kumar, S.H., Shetty, A.K., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2012.  Prevalence and characterization of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from adults and children in Mangalore, India. J. lab. Physicians. 4:24-29.

Pradeep B., Rai, P., Mohan, S.A., Shekhar, M.S., Karunasagar, I. 2012.  Biology, host range, pathogenesis and diagnosis of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Ind. J. Virol.23:161-174..


Adiga, R., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I2011. Outer membrane protein secretion of Type III secretion system of  Vibrio  vulnificus: structure prediction and orientation. Open Access Bioinformatics, 3: 61-66. 

Adiga, R., Karunasagar, I., and Karunasagar, I. 2011. Molecular Docking Studies of Type III  Secretion System Effector SopB  homolog inVibrio vulnificus J. Comput. Sci. Syst. Biol. 4:16 -20.

Asplund, M. E., Rehnstam-Holm, A. S., Atnur, V., Raghunath, P ., Saravanan, V., Härnström, K., Collin, B., Karunasagar, I., Godhe, A.  2011. Water column dynamics of Vibrio in relation to phytoplankton community composition and environmental conditions  in  a  tropical coastal area. Environ. Microbiol. 13: 2738- 2751.

Bharathi, P., Bhowmick, P.P., Shekar, M. and Karunasagar, I. 2011.  Biofilm formation by pure and mixed culture of  Lactobacillus  isolates on polysterene surface in varyingnutrient conditions. Biotechnol. Bioinfo. Bioengg. 1: 93-98.

Bharathi, P., Shekar, M. and Karunasagar, I. 2011. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus species associated with dentures.Biotechnol. Bioinfo. Bioengg. 2: 235-239

Bhowmick, P.P., Shabarinath, S., Devegowda, D., Shekar, M., Ruwandeepika, H.A.D., Karunasagar, I., Karunasagar, I.  2011.  Serotyping and molecular characterization for study of genetic diversity among seafood associated nontyphoidal  Salmonella  serovars. Ind. J. Med Res. (in press)


Bhowmick, P.P., Devegowda, D., and Karunasagar, I. 2011. Virulotyping of seafood associated Salmonella enterica subsp. Enteric isolated from Southwest coast of India . Biotechnol. Bioinfo. Bioengg. 1: 63-69.


Bhowmick, P.P., Devegowda, D., Ruwandeepika, H.A., Karunasagar, I., Karunasagar, I. 2011. Presence of Salmonella pathogenicity Island 2 genes in seafood associated Salmonella serovars and the role of sseC gene in survival of Salmonella  enterica serovar  Weltevreden in epithelial cells.  Microbiology. 157:160-168.

Bhowmick, P.P., Devegowda, D., Ruwandeepika, H.A., Fuchs, T.M., Srikumar, S., Karunasagar, I, Karunasagar, I. 2011. gcpA (stm1987)  is critical for cellulose production and biofilm formation on polystyrene surface by Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden in both  high and low nutrient  medium. Microb Pathog. 50: 114-122. 

Karunasagar, A., Maiti, B., Shekar, M., Shenoy, M. S., Karunasagar, I. 2011. Prevalence of OXA-type carbapenemase genes and genetic heterogeneity in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. from Mangalore, India. Microbiol.  Immunol., 55: 239-46. 

Kumar, B.K., Raghunath, P., Devegowda, D., Deekshit, V.K., Venugopal, M.N., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2011. Development of monoclonal antibody based sandwich ELISA for the rapid detection of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 31: 145: 244-9.


Maiti, B., Shetty, M., Shekar, M., Karunasagar, I., Karunasagar, I. 2011. Recombinant outer membrane protein (OmpA) of Edwardsiella tarda, a potential vaccine candidate for fish, common carp. Microbiol. Res. 167:1-7.

Maiti, B., Shetty, M., Shekar, M., Karunasagar, I., Karunasagar, I. (2011) Protective immunity of recombinant outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Edwardsiella tarda for fish, common carp. Microbiological Research (Article in press).


Natrah, F.M., Ruwandeepika,H.A., Pawar, S., Karunasagar, I., Sorgeloos, P.,  Bossier, P. and Defoirdt, T. 2011. Regulation of virulence factors by quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi. Vet. Microbiol. 154124-129.

Neema, M. Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2011. Antigenic epitopes and MHC binders in OmpA of fish pathogen Edwardsiella tarda: a bioinformatics study. Biotechnol.Bioinfo.Bioengg. 1: 39-45.

Neema, M., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2011. Structural and functional characterization of outer membrane protein N in Edwardsiella ictaluri: A bioinformatics approach. Int. J. Pharma Sc. Res. 2: 13-26.

Neema, M., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2010. in silico identification and characterization of novel drug targets and outer membrane proteins in the fish pathogen Edwardsiella tardaDove Press J. Open Access Bioinformatics, 3: 37-42.

Rai, P., Safeena, M.P., Karunasagar, I., Karunasagar, I. 2011. Complete nucleic acid sequence of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) from India. Virus Res. 158: 37-45.

Ruwandeepika, H.A., Defoirdt, T., Bhowmick, P.P., Karunasagar, I., Bossier, P. 2011. Expression of virulence genes in luminescent and nonluminescent isogenic vibrios and virulence towards gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana). J. Appl.Microbiol. 110: 399-406.

Ruwandeepika, H.A., Defoirdt, T., Bhowmick, P.P., Karunasagar, I., Karunasagar, I. and  Bossier, P. 2011. In vitro and in vivo expression of virulence genes in Vibrio isolates belonging to the Harveyi clade in relation to their virulence towards gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana). Environ Microbiol. 13:506-517.

Ruwandeepika, H.A, Defoirdt, T., Bhowmick, P.P., Karunasagar, I., Bossier, P. 2011. The presence and in vivo expression levels of virulence genes in vibrios belonging to the Harveyi clade in relation to virulence towards gnotobiotic brine shrimp. Commun Agric  Appl Biol Sci. 76(1): 223-6

Ruwandeepika, H.A.D., Bhowmick, P. P., Karunasagar, I., Bossier, P. and Defoirdt,  T. 2011. Quorum sensing regulation of virulence  gene expression  in Vibrio Harveyi in vitro and in vivo during infection of brain shrimp (Artemia  Francsiscana). Environ. Microbiol. Rep. (DOI: 10.1111/j.1758-2229.2229. 2011.00268.x).

Ruwandeepika, H.A.D., Bhowmick, P.P., Karunasagar, I., Bossier, P., and Defoirdt, T. Quorum sensing regulation of virulence gene expression in Vibrio Harveyi in vitro and in vivo during infection of brain shrimp (Artemia Francsiscana). Environmental Microbiology Reports (In press)

Walker, P. J., Gudkovs, N., Pradeep, B., Raj, V.S., Sergeant, E., Mohan, A.B. C., Ravibabu, G., Umesh, N.R., Karunasagar, I., Santiago, T.C.  and Mohan, C.V. 2011. Longitudinal disease studies in small-holder black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) ponds in Andhra  Pradesh, India. III. A complex dynamic of WSSV infection and WSSV genotype distribution in farmed shrimp and wild crustaceans.  Aquaculture, 319:319 -327.

Walker P.J., Gudkovs, N., Padiyar, P.A., Stalin Raj ,V., Pradeep, B., Sergeant, E., Chandra Mohan, A.B., Ravibabu, G., Vijayan, K.K., Karunasagar, I., Santiago, T.C., Mohan, C.V. 2011. Longitudinal disease studies in small-holder black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) farms in Andhra Pradesh, India. I. Correlation of WSSV infection with risk of crop failure. Aquaculture.  318:277-282.

Walker, P. J., Gudkovs, N., Mohan, C.V., Raj, V.S., Pradeep, B., Sergeant, E., Mohan, A.B. C., Ravibabu, G., Karunasagar, I., Santiago, T.C. 2011. Longitudinal disease studies in small-holder black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) ponds in Andhra Pradesh, India. II. Multiple WSSV genotypes   associated with disease outbreaks in ponds seeded with uninfected postlarvae. Aquaculture, 319:18 -24.


Adiga, R., Karunasagar I. and Karunasagar I. 2010. Bioinformatics based analysis of Type III secretion system effector protein of Vibrio vulnificus. Adv. Appl. Sci. Res., 3: 222-228.

Maiti, B., Khushiramani, R., Tyagi, A., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2010. Recombinant ferritin protein protects Penaeus monodon infected pathogenic Vibrio harveyi. Dis. Aquat. Org., 88: 99-105.

Raghunath, P., Maiti, B., Shekar, M., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2010. Clinical Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii strains harbour non-functional gene similar to the thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin (trh) gene of  Vibrio parahaemolyticusFEMS Microbiol. Lett. 307:151 -157.

Ruwandeepika, H.A., Defoirdt, T., Bhowmick, P.P., Shekar, M., Bossier, P. and Karunasagar, I. 2010. Presence of typical and atypical virulence genes in vibrio isolates belonging to the Harveyi clade. J. Appl. Microbiol. 109: 888-899.

Ryo, S., Wijdeven, R.H., Kono, T., Karunasagar, I., Rombout, J.H., Sakai, M., Tyagi, A., Hermsen, T., Verburg-van Kemenade, B. M., Savan, R. 2010. Common carp have two subclasses of bonyfish specific antibody IgZ showing differential expression in response to infection. Dev Comp Immunol. 34:1183-90.

Safeena, M.P, Tyagi, A., Rai, P., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2010.  Complete nucleic acid sequence of Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV) from India. Virus Res., 150:1-11.     

Neema, M., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2010. Structural and functional characterization of outer membrane protein N in Edwardsiella ictaluri: A bioinformatics approach. Int. J. Pharma Sc. Res.(In press)


Almany, G.R., De Arruda, M.P.,  Arthofer, W., Atallah, Z. K., Beissinger, S.R., Berumen, M. L. et al. 2009. Permanent Genetic  Resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 May 2009–31 July 2009. Mol. Eco. Res., 9: 1460–1559

Härnström, K., Karunasagar, I. and Godhe, A. 2009. Phytoplankton species assemblages and their relationship to hydrographic factors-a study at the old port in Mangalore, coastal Arabian Sea. Indian J. Mar. Sci. 38: 224-234.

Heuer, O.E., Hilde Kruse, H., Grave, K., Collignon, P., Karunasagar, I. and Angulo, F.J2009. Human health consequences  of  use of antimicrobial agents in aquaculture. Clin. Infect. Dis., 49: 1248–53.

Khushiramani, R, Girisha, S.K., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2009. Evaluation of a digoxigenin-labelled probe for  detection of Aeromonas spp. Lett Appl. Microbiol. 48383-385.

Maiti, B., Raghunath, P., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2009. Cloning and expression of an outer membrane protein OmpW of Aeromonas hydrophila and study of its distribution in Aeromonas spp. J.  Appl. Microbiol. 107: 157-167.

Maiti, B., Raghunath, P., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2009. Typing of clinical and environmental strains of  Aeromonas 1 spp. using two PCR based methods and whole cell protein analysis.  J. Microbiol. Methods, 78: 312-318.

Maiti, B., Shekar, M., Khushiramani, R., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2009. Evaluation of random amplified  polymorphic  DNA-PCR and protein profile analysis to differentiate Vibrio harveyi strains prevalent along southwest coast of  India.. J. Genet. 88: 273-279

Pradeep, B., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2009. Fitness and virulence of different strains of white spot syndrome virus J. Fish Dis32: 801-805.

Raghunath, P., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2009. Improved isolation and detection of pathogenic Vibrio  parahaemolyticus from seafood using a new enrichment broth. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 129: 200-203.

Rai, P., Pradeep, B., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2009. Detection of viruses in Penaeus monodon from India showing signs of slow growth syndrome. Aquaculture, 289: 231–235.

Rai, P., Pradeep, B., Safeena, M.P., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar,  2009. Simultaneous presence of infectious hypodermal and hematopoetic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and Type A virus-related sequences in Penaeus monodon from India. Aquaculture  295: 168-174.

Tyagi, A., Saravanan, V., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2009. Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in tropical shellfish by  SYBR green real-time PCR and evaluation of three enrichment media. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 129:124-30.


Bhowmick, P.P., Khushiramani, R., Raghunath, P.  Karunasagar, I. and  Karunasagar, I. 2008.  Molecular typing of  Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from seafood harvested along the south-west coast of India. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 46: 198–204.

Divu, D., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2008.  Microsatellite DNA markers in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii -A tool for genetic analysis. Mol. Ecol. Resource. 8:1040-1042.

Divu, D., Khushiramani, S.,  Shekar, M., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2008.  Isolation, characterization and evaluation of microsatellits DNA markers in giant freshwater  prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergi from South India. Aquaculture., 284: 281-284.

Godhe A., Asplund, M.E., Härnström, K., Saravanan, V., Tyagi, A. and  Karunasagar I. 2008.  Quantification of diatom and dinoflagellate biomasses in coastal marine seawater samples by  real-time PCR.  Appl Environ. Microbiol. 74:7174-82.

Joseph, B., Mertins, S., Stoll, R., Schar, J., Umesha, K. R., Luo, Q., Muller- Altrock, S. and   Goebal W. 2008. Glycorol- Metabolism and Prf A activity in Listeria monocytogenesJ. Bacteriol., 190: 5412-5430. 

Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2008. Marine Biotechnology: A natural biorefinery source of marine products and by- products for human welfare. Asian Biotechnology and Development Review. 10: 89-102.

Matlani, R., Girisha, S.K., Bhowmick, P.,  Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2008. Prevalence of different outer membrane protein in isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 24:2263-2268.

Pais, R., Khushiramani, R., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2008. Effect of immunostimulants on the haemolymph haemagglutinins of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.  Aqua. Res., 39: 1339-1345.

Parvathi, A., Umesha, K.R., Sanath Kumar, H.,  Sithithaworn, P., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2008.  Development and evaluation of a polymerase chain  reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of Opisthorchis viverrini in fish. Acta Tropica. 107: 13-16.

Pradeep, B., Shekar, M., Gudkovs, N., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2008. Genotyping of white spot syndrome virus prevalent in shrimp farms of India. Dis. Aquat. Org. 78 : 189-198

Pradeep, B., Shekar, M., Gudkovs, N., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2008. Characterization of variable genomic regions of Indian white spot syndrome virus. Virology, 376: 24-30.

Raghunath, P., Acharya, S.,  Bhanumathi, A., Karunasagar,  I. and  Karunasagar, I2008.  Detection and molecular characterization of  Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from seafood harvested along the southwest coast of India. Food  Microbiol. 25:824- 830.

Shekar, M., Acharya, S., Karunasagar, I and Karunasagar, I. 2008. Variable repeat regions in the genome of  Vibrio  vulnificus  and polymorphism in one of the locus in strains  isolated from oysters. Int. J. Food  Microbiol. 123: 240-245.

Tyagi, A., Prashanth , V., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I2008.  Determination of chloramphenicol in shrimp by liquid chromatography – electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Food Additives & Contaminants. 25: 432-437.

Umesha, K.R., Bhavani, N.C., Venugopal, M.N., Karunasagar, I., Krohne, G.and Karunasagar, I. 2008. Prevalence of human pathogenic entric viruses in bivalve molluscan shellfish and cultured shrimp in south west coast of India. Int. J. Food  Microbiol. 122: 279-286

Umesha, K. R., Sanath Kumar, H., Parvathi, A., Duenngai, K., Sithithaworn, P., Karunasagar, I. and  Karunasagar, I. 2008.  Opisthorchis viverrini. Detection by Polymerase chain reaction  (PCR) in human stool samples. Experimental Parasitology.120: 353-356.


Dass, B. K. M., Venugopal, M. N., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2007. Bacteria associated with biofilms in a Macrobrachium rosenbergii hatchery. Asian Fisheries Sci. 20: 299-307.

Harnstrom, K., Godhe, A., Saravanan, V., Karunasagar, I. Karunasagar, I. and Rehnstam-Holm Ann, S. 2007.  Tropical phytoplankton community development in mesocosms inoculated with different life stages. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 346: 75-88

Karunasagar, I., Shivu, M.M.,  Girisha, S.K. ,  Krohne, G. and  Karunasagar, I. 2007. Biocontrol of pathogens in shrimp hatcheries  using bacteriophages. Aquaculture, 268: 288–292.

Khushiramani, R., Girisha S. K, Karunasagar, I and Karunasagar, I. 2007. Protective efficacy of recombinant OmpTS protein of Aeromonas hydrophila in Indian major carp. Vaccine,  25: 1157-1158.

Khushiramani, R., Girisha, S. K, Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2007. Cloning and  expression of  an outer  membrane protein ompTS of Aeromonas hydrophila  and study of immunogenicity in fish. Protein  Exp. Pur., 51: 303-307.

Kunyarat, D., Paiboon, S., Umesha, K.R., Karunasagar, I., Thewarach, L., Christen, R.S., Hanne, S. and Maria, V.J. 2008. Improvement of PCR for Detection of Opisthorchis viverrini DNA in Human stool samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46 : 366 – 368

Pais, R., Shekar, M., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2007. Hemagglutinating activity and electrophoretic pattern of  hemolymph serum proteins of Penaeus monodon and Macrobrachium rosenbergii  in white spot syndrome virus injections. Aquaculture, 270: 529-534

Parvathi, A., Sanath Kumar, H., Prakasha Kenchanna, B., Lu, J., Xu, X., Hu, W., Feng, Z., Karunasagar, I and Karunasagar, I.  2007. Clonorchis sinensis : Development and evaluation of a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Exp. Parasitol., 115 : 291-295.

Prakasha, B.K., Ramakrishna, R.P., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I., 2007. Detection of Laem – singh virus (LSNV) in culture Penaeus monodon from India. DAO, 77: 83 – 86.

Raghunath, P., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2007. Evaluation of an alkaline phosphatase-labeled oligonucleotide probe for detection and enumeration of Vibrio spp. from shrimp hatchery environment. Mol.Cellular Probes, 21: 312-315.

Raghunath, P., Pradeep, B.,  Karunasagar I. and  Karunasagar, I. 2007. Rapid detection an enumeration of trh- carrying Vibrio parahaemolyticus with the alkaline phosphatase-labeled oligonucleotide probe. Environ.Microbiol., 9: 266-270.

Saravanan, V., Sanath Kumar, H.,  Karunasagar, I. and  Karunasagar,  I. 2007. Putative virulence genes of Vibrio cholerae from  seafoods and the coastal environment of Southwest India. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 119: 329-333.

Shabarinath, S.,  Sanath Kumar, H.,  Khushiramani, R.,  Karunasagar, I. and  Karunasagar,  I. 2007. Detection and characterization of Salmonella  associated with tropical seafood. Int. J. Food Microbiol. , 114: 227-233.

Shekar, M., Karunasagar, I. and  Karunasagar, I.  2007. Abundance, composition and distribution of simple sequence repeats and dinucleotide compositional bias within WSSV genomes. J. Genet., 86: 69-73.

Shivu, M.M.,  Rajeeva, B.C., Girisha, S.K., Karunasagar, I., Krohne, G. and  Karunasagar, I., 2007. Molecular characterizationof Vibrio harveyi bacteriophages isolated from aquaculture environment along the coast of India.Environ. Microbiol.,9:322-331.    

Tyagi, A., Khushiramani, R.,  Karunasagar, I. and  Karunasagar,  I. 2007. Antivibrio activity of recombinant lysozyme expressed from black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodonAquaculture, 272: 246–253.


Bob Kennedy, M.D., Venugopal, M.N., Karunasagar, I. and  Karunasagar, I. 2006.   Bacterial flora associated with the giant  freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, in the hatchery system. Aquaculture , 261:1156-1167. 

Godhe, A., McQuoid, M.R., Karunasagar, I.,  Karunasagar, I. and Rehnstam-Holm Ann, S. 2006. Comparison of three common molecular tools for distinguishing among geographically separated clones of the diatom Skeletonema marinoi sarno et  zingone (Bacillariophyceae).  J.  Phycol. 42 : 280-291.

Parvathi, A.,  Sanath Kumar, H., Bhanumathi, A., Ishibashi, M., Nishibuchi, M.,  Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2006. Molecular characterization of  thermostable direct haemolysin-related haemolysin (TRH)  positive Vibrio parahaemolyticus  from oysters  in Mangalore, India. Environ.  Microbiol.  8):  997–1004.

Sanath Kumar, H., Parvathi, A.,  Indrani Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2006. A gyrB-based PCR for the detection of Vibrio  vulnificus and its application for  direct detection of this pathogen in oyster enrichment broths. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 111: 216- 220. 

Shabarinath, S.,  Sanath Kumar, H.,  Khushiramani, R., Karunasagar, I. and  Karunasagar, I. 2006. Detection and characterization of Salmonella  associated with tropical seafood. Int. J. Food  Microbiol. 114: 227-233.

Uma, A., Koteeswaran, A., Karunasagar, I. and  Karunasagar, I2006. Prevalence of hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) in Penaeus  monodon postlarvae from commercial shrimp hatcheries in Tamilnadu, southeast coast of  India. Asian Fish. Sci., 19: 110-113. 

Umesha, K. R., Bob Kennedy, M.D.,  Manja Naik, B., Venugopal, M.N., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2006. High  prevalence  of dual and triple viral infections in black tiger shrimp ponds in India. Aquaculture 258: 91-96. 


Vinod, M.G.,  Shivu, M.M., Umesha, K.R., Rajeeva, B.C.,  Krohne, G.,  Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2006.  Isolation of Vibrio harveyi  bacteriophage with a potential for biocontrol of luminous vibriosis in hatchery  environments.  255: 117 -124.


Deepanjali, A., Sanath Kumar, H., Karunasagar, I and Karunasagar, I. 2005. Seasonal variation in  abundance of total and pathogenicVibrio parahaemolyticus in oysters along the south west coast of   India.  Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 3575 -3580. 

Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2005. Retention of pathogenicity in viable nonculturable pathogens.  In:  Belkin, S. and Colwell, R.R. (Reds.),  Oceans and Health: Pathogens in the Marine Environment. Springer, New York, pp. 361-371.

Karunasagar, I., Vinod, M.G., Bob Kennedy, M.D., Atnur, V., Deepanjali, A., Umesha, K.R.  and  Karunasagar, I. 2005. Biocontrol of bacterial pathogens in aquaculture with emphasis on phage therapy. In: P.Walker, R. Lester and M.G. Bondad-Reantaso (eds.).Diseases in Asian Aquaculture V, Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society, Manila. pp. 535-542.   

Lekha, P., Sanath, H.K., Karunasagar, I. and  Karunasagar, I. 2005. Diagnosis of partially treated culture negative bacterial meningitis using 16S rRNA universal primers and restriction endonuclease digestion. J. Med. Microbiol. 54: 539-542.

Malathi, S., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2005. A computer based identification of variable number tandem repeats in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genomes. Curr. Sci. 89 :882-887.

Manjanaik, B., Umesha, K.R., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2005. Detection of  hepatopancreatic  parvovirus (HPV) in wild shrimps in India by nested polymerase chain reaction  (PCR), DAO. 63:255-259.

Manjanaik, B.,  Venugopal, M.N.,  Karunasagar, I. and  Karunasagar, I. 2005. Effect of sanitizer treatment on bacteriology of microcosm simulating shrimp pond ecosystem. Asian Fisheries Sci., 18127-137.  

Parvathi, A., Sanath, H.K., Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I. 2005. Study of occurrence of  V.vulnificus in oysters in India by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and heterogeneity among V.vulnificus by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR and  gyrB  sequence analysis.  Environ. Microbiol  7: 995-1002

Sanath, H.K.,  Parvathi, A.,  Karunasagar, I. and Karunasagar, I.  2005. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli in tropical seafood. World J. Microbiol. Biotech. 21: 619-623.    

Shubha, G., Otta, S.K. Sanath, H.K., Karunasagar, I., Nishibuchi, M. and  Karunasagar, I. 2005. The occurrence of Vibrio species in tropical shrimp culture environments; implications for food safety. International J. Food Microbiol., 102: 151 - 159.


Uma, A., Koteeswaran, A., Karunasagar, I.  and  Karunasagar, I. 2005. Prevalence of Whitespot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) and monodon baculovirus (MBV) in Penaeus monodon broodstock and postlarvae (PL) from hatcheries in southeast coast of   India .Curr. Sci. 89: 1619-1622.